Ipilimumab discontinued.4 months3Ipilimumabdifluprednate QID Isoliquiritin OU2 weeks C resolution of AC inflammationPH 20/25 OD br / PH 20/30 OS2 weeks: br / PH 20/25 OUNo mention of recurrent uveitis or visual symptoms in oncology follow up notes up to 9 months later.2 weeks4Ipilimumabprednisone 60mg PO qD, difluprednate q1H OU, and fluorometholone ointment qHS OU2 weeks – resolution of panuveitis and improvement of visioncc: 20/40 OD 20/100 OS6 months: br / cc: 20/20 OD 20/25 OSInitial FA showed fleck like retinopathy with multiple early hypoflourescent and late hyperflourescent lesions with an irregular choroidal filling. Ipilimumab discontinued after 3 Isoliquiritin months.6 months5Ipi-Nivoprednisolone acetate1 week C excellent responseQuiet 4 months4 months6Ipi-Nivodifluprednate QID OU2 weeks – resolution of uveitis OUPH 20/20 OU2 months: br / PH 20/20 OUInitial FA revealed no vasculitis, papillitis, staining, or leakage OU. for 11/12 patients (median 63 days). Corticosteroid treatment was effective for most patients, although 2 patients Rabbit Polyclonal to IPKB had permanent loss of vision. Conclusions: Patients on checkpoint inhibitor therapy should be educated to seek care if they develop ocular symptoms, and prompt referral to specialists should be incorporated into oncology protocols. strong class=”kwd-title” Keywords: uveitis, PD-1, CTLA-4, checkpoint inhibitor, ocular inflammation, immunotherapy Introduction This past decade has seen a rapid and dramatic shift in cancer management with the increasingly widespread use of cancer immunotherapy drugs. Immunotherapy is based on the concept of cancer immunosurveillance 1, the idea that a natural function of the immune system includes detection and elimination of transformed host cells, and that by extension, enhancing immune function can amplify antitumor response and aid in eradication of existing cancers and Isoliquiritin metastases. This study focuses on the class of immune checkpoint inhibitors, specifically CTLA-4 and PD-1 monoclonal antibody blockade 2, which act by releasing inhibitory brakes on immune cells to promote antitumor response 3,4. Use of these immunotherapeutic drugs whose actions work in the spectrum between anti-tumor and anti-self, disrupts the balance of self-tolerance and the well-established functions of the PD-1 and CTLA-4 pathways in autoimmunity 5. The Isoliquiritin subsequent immune related adverse events (irAEs) and their management is a critical area of immunotherapeutic research, as autoimmune related toxicity often limits the use of these otherwise effective cancer therapeutics. Autoimmune side effects are extremely common in patients on cancer immunotherapy, with up to 80-90% of patients on CTLA-4 checkpoint blockade (ipilimumab) 6,7 and up to 70% of patients on PD-1 (pembrolizumab & nivolumab) or PD-L1 (atezolizumab, avelumab, & durvalumab) therapy 8-10 experiencing irAEs, most of which are moderate, transient, and self-limited, but which can occasionally be severe and can affect almost any organ or system. Ophthalmologic autoimmune complications were reported in 10.3% of patients on ipilimumab treatment in a systematic review of 234 ipilimumab patients, with 4.3% classified as uveitis 11. Studies with pembrolizumab have determined a lower rate of approximately 1% – 1.5% rate of uveitis 12-15. Immune related ocular complications in cancer patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ipilimumab, tremelimumab, nivolumab, or pembrolizumab) occur with an odds ratio of about 3.4 times higher frequency as compared to patients on conventional cancer regimens 16. Combination ipilimumab-nivolumab has been shown to have stronger anti-tumor effect, but also a higher uveitis toxicity (6%) than either agent alone 17,18. However, the cases with ophthalmic complications that have been referenced in the literature have not been completely described. Here we detail the clinical course of 14 patients who developed uveitis after administration of CTLA-4 or PD-1 cancer immunotherapeutics to aid in the understanding and Isoliquiritin management of patients who develop immune related ocular complications in this setting. Methods Patient cases were collected through a survey containing 18 primary questions that was distributed to uveitis specialists who were members of the American Uveitis Society (AUS) listserv (Supplemental Physique 1). AUS is usually a 276 member society with all members having access to the listserv. Physicians were asked to identify patients with uveitis who were previously treated with one of the two commercially available PD-1 inhibitors (pembrolizumab and nivolumab), three available PD-L1 inhibitors (atezolizumab, avelumab, and durvalumab), or the CTLA-4 inhibitor (ipilimumab). Participating physicians submitted HIPAA compliant, deidentified information including patient demographics, uveitis severity, treatment, clinical response, checkpoint inhibitor drug used, and cancer diagnosis for each patient. Physicians were asked to report diagnosis and scoring consistent with Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature (SUN) working group criteria 19. This research was conducted under IRB approval through the University of California, Los Angeles (IRB #17-001861) for multicenter collection of deidentified patient data from uveitis specialists in the American Uveitis Society. The online survey was designed and distributed through the secure electronic data collection tool REDCap and responses saved in HIPAA compliant data backup in house. Numeric data was exported and basic statistical analyses performed. Text responses were aggregated and edited for consistency, style, and removal of potentially identifiable information. Literature Search: A literature search of published manuscripts in the PubMed database was performed using the search terms pembrolizumab, nivolumab, atezolizumab, avelumab, and durvalumab with the term uveitis, to identify published cases of uveitis found in association with these drugs..