Gunning B. involved in plastid genome transfer from herb to herb. We show that during proliferation of wound-induced callus, plastids dedifferentiate into small, highly motile, amoeboid organelles. Simultaneously, new intercellular connections emerge by localized cell wall disintegration, forming connective pores through which amoeboid plastids move into neighboring cells. Our work uncovers a pathway of organelle movement from cell to cell and provides a mechanistic framework for horizontal genome transfer. INTRODUCTION Natural grafts are common in plants (axis represents the number of successful grafts analyzed; the axis represents the number of doubly resistant calli obtained per graft. Observation of cell-to-cell movement of plastids in real time To provide greatest proof of organelle movement from cell to cell, we next attempted to observe the intercellular transfer of plastids in real time. To this end, we followed the movements of mobile dedifferentiated plastids in cells at the graft junction. Multiple events of cell-to-cell migration of amoeboid plastids were observed (Fig. 8B and movies lorcaserin hydrochloride (APD-356) S3 to S5). Analysis of fluorescent markers confirmed that this organelle transfer occurred across the graft junction, between Pt-spec:dsRed and Nuc-kan:YFP cells (Fig. 8B and movies S3 and S4). These findings unambiguously demonstrate that lorcaserin hydrochloride (APD-356) genomes move horizontally in graft unions via organelle travel from cell to cell. Last, we wanted to confirm that plastid motility and dedifferentiation promote intercellular organelle transfer. To this lorcaserin hydrochloride (APD-356) end, we tested various growth conditions for their impact on plastid motility. We found that dark-induced carbon starvation stimulates dedifferentiation into small and amoeboid plastid types and also substantially increases organelle motility (Fig. 8C, table S1, and movies S1 and S2). We then lorcaserin hydrochloride (APD-356) used double selection for the nuclear and plastid resistance genes (cv. Petit Havana and cv. Samsun NN) plants were produced on agar-solidified synthetic medium made up of sucrose (30 g/liter) (and genes) that was inserted as a dicistronic operon with the selectable marker gene (and genes in the tobacco plastid genome (fig. S1A). Nuclear transgenic Nuc-kan:YFP lines harbor a YFP expression cassette under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter and terminator ((Moraceae). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 109, 93C104 (2017). [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 12. Alwadani K. G., Janes J. K., Andrew R. L., Chloroplast genome evaluation of box-ironbark Eucalyptus. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 136, 76C86 (2019). [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 13. Bock R., The give-and-take of DNA: horizontal gene transfer in vegetation. Trends Vegetable Sci. 15, 11C22 (2010). [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 14. Rebbeck C. A., Leroi A. M., Burt A., Mitochondrial catch with a transmissible tumor. Technology 331, 303 (2011). [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 15. Tan A. S., Baty J. W., Dong L.-D., Bezawork-Geleta A., Endaya B., Goodwin J., Bajzikova M., Kovarova J., Peterka M., Yan B., Alizadeh Pesdar E. A., Sobol M., Filimonenko A., Stuart S., Vondrusova M., Kluckova K., Sachaphibulkij K., Rohlena J., Hozak P., Truksa J., Eccles D., Haupt L. M., Griffiths L. R., Neuzil J., Berridge M. V., Mitochondrial genome acquisition restores respiratory function and tumorigenic potential of tumor cells without mitochondrial DNA. Cell Metab. 21, 81C94 (2015). [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 16. Dong L.-F., Kovarova J., Bajzikova M., lorcaserin hydrochloride (APD-356) Bezawork-Geleta A., Svec D., Endaya B., Sachaphibulkij K., Coelho A. R., Sebkova N., Ruzickova A., Tan A. S., Kluckova K., Judasova K., Zamecnikova K., Rychtarcikova Z., Gopalan V., Andera L., Sobol M., Yan B., Pattnaik B., Bhatraju N., Truksa J., Stopka P., Hozak P., Lam A. K., Sedlacek R., Oliveira P. J., Kubista M., Agrawal A., Dvorakova-Hortova K., Rohlena J., Berridge M. V., Neuzil J., Horizontal transfer of entire mitochondria restores tumorigenic potential in mitochondrial DNA-deficient tumor cells. eLife 6, e22187 (2017). [PMC free of charge content] [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 17. Hayakawa K., Esposito E., Wang CLU X., Terasaki Y., Liu Y., Xing C., X Ji., Lo E. H., Transfer of mitochondria from astrocytes to neurons after heart stroke. Character 535, 551C555 (2016). [PMC free of charge content] [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 18. Stegemann S., Keuthe M., Greiner S., Bock R., Horizontal transfer of chloroplast genomes between vegetable varieties. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109, 2434C2438 (2012). [PMC free of charge article].